Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic
The NASA TRACE-A (Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic) field study was deployed in August 1992 to determine the cause and source of high concentrations of ozone that accumulate over the Atlantic ocean between southern Africa...
Fires in Brazil
The King Air was used 1-22 September 1992 to provide flight support for this interdisciplinary program designed to assess emissions to the atmosphere from widespread fires in central Brazil. This research was part of an assessment of fire extent and...
Southern Oxidant Study
The Southern Oxidant Study (SOS92) was designed to collect sufficient data to develop and/or test urban-scale photochemical models.
The purpose of this program was to determine and quantify the processes responsible for the transport of ozone and ozone precursors (NOy) vertically: (1) through the planetary boundary layer, (2) between the planetary boundary layer and the free...
Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition EXperiment / MAGE
In the ASTEX/MAGE study, aircraft measurements of mean, turbulent, radiative, and microphysical properties of marine boundary layer clouds were collected and used to study the structure and evolution of clouds. In addition atmospheric chemistry and...
USWRP/STORM Fronts Experiment Systems Test
STORM-FEST was a mesoscale field experiment conducted in the central U.S. during February and March 1992. The overall goal was to evaluate, in a very focused field experiment, the various research components critical for the success of the STORM...
Canadian Atlantic Storms Program II
The Canadian Atlantic Storms Program (CASP) II was conducted near the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland, Canada, from 15 January through 15 March 1992 to improve understanding and prediction of the mesoscale structure of east coast storms and to improve...
Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study: 1991-1992
This project is a long-range study to understand the interctions between the atmosphere and the forest biome and to clarify their roles in global climate change. Two PAM stations were deplyed for one year, one in Thompson, Manitoba, and one in Prince...
Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment
Convective precipitation field experiment conducted in east central Florida. Objectives: 1. Identify relationships between co-evolving wind, water, and electric fields within convective clouds. 2. Determine the meteorological and electrical conditions...
Tropical Cyclone Initiation Experiment
The Tropical Cyclone Initiation experiment (TEXMEX) was conducted during the summer of 1991 of the west coast of Mexico. The main goal of TEXMEX was to test the hypothesis that the elevation of theta-e in the middle troposphere just above the near...
Cooperative Oklahoma Profiler Studies
This project, sponsored by the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL), NASA, the University of Oklahoma, NOAA and Colorado State University, was run at NSSL from 15 April to 20 June, 1991. Fifteen PAM-II stations were deployed between Amarillo,...
Mexico City Air Pollution study
The Mexico City Air Pollution study (MexCAPS) was the first comprehensive program designed to provide substantive recommendations for improving the air quality of Mexico City. This effort began under the joint auspices of Los Alamos National Laboratory...
Winter Icing and Storms Project: 1991
WISP-91 was the second (WISP-90) in a series of depoyments sponsored by NCAR, NOAA and the FAA. Primary goals were to invistigate the production and depletion of supercooled liquid water in winter storms and thereby enhance aircr5aft safety through...
First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II-Cirrus
The First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II-Cirrus project was an experimental investigation of the cirrus cloud systems that form an integral part of the second intensive field observational phase of the cirrus component of the First ISCCP Regional...
Kuwait Oil-Fire Smoke Experiment
Airborne studies of smoke from the Kuwait oil fires were carried out in the spring of 1991 when ~4.6 million barrels of oil were burning per day. Emissions of sulfur dioxide were ~57% of that from electric utilities in the United States; emissions of...
Chemical Layering in the Lower Stratosphere
Fine scale layering in the lower stratosphere has been observed in the temperature, condensation nuclei and water vapor structure. The Chemical Layering in the Lower Stratosphere program used the Sabreliner to make measurements of the above parameters...
Spontaneous Ice Nucleation II
The Spontaneous Ice Nucleation II (SPIN) project flew the Sabreliner in a continuation of earlier efforts to study high altitude atmospheric aerosols via sample collections and in-flight experiments, predominantly in wave clouds, where the time history...
Particulate Airborne Inlet Research
The PASIN program demonstrated that airborne aerosol inlets with sharp edges pass 50% or less of ambient particles to samplers inside an aircraft. On a recent King Air program in Monterey, CA, it was found that this largely-size-independent loss occurs...
Tropical Cyclone Motion
The Tropical Cyclone Motion (TCM-90) Research Initiative, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), was a project dedicated to understanding tropical cyclone motion and improving forecast accuracy. The TCM-90 was conducted with several...
Hawaiian Rainband Experiment
The Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP), conducted in July and August of 1990, used aircraft, radar, surface, and upper-air measurements to investigate the formation and dynamical and microphysical structure of rainbands offshore of the Big Island. One...
The purpose of this program was to determine the role of hydrocarbons and NOx in the formation of ozone in the southern environment. The role of natural hydrocarbons vs anthropogenic hydrocarbons was investigated. A ground site located 7 miles north of...
Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition
The Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3B) was part of NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) over Northeastern Canada during July and August, 1990. The objective of the mission was to assess the importance of the Hudson Bay lowlands as a...
NAME Model Assessment Project
The purpose of the NAME Model Assessment Project (NAMAP) is to provide focus to high-resolution modeling activities in support of the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME). NAMAP Phase I consists of simulations of the single 1990 warm season when...
Hanna: Sigma Research Corporation Project Support
Hanna90 was in support of a research program for Sigma Research Corporation sponsored by both the U.S. Army and the U.S. Air Force, with Steven Hanna of SRC as the PI. The objective of the program ws to investigate the correlations of wind...
Airborne Lidar and Observations of Hawaiian Airglow FY 1990
During this project an airborne Rayleigh/Na lidar, airglow imager and airglow spectrometer were used to study stratosphere/mesosphere dynamics, polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) and sporadic layering phenomena in the upper atmosphere. These flights were...
Winter Icing and Storms Program: 1990
The Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP) utilized nineteen PAM stations and four CLASS systems during February and March, 1990. It was the first in a series of deployments sponsored principally by NCAR's Research Applications Program, NOAA, and the...
Convective Waves over Ocean (Wave)
This project was a continuation of earlier efforts to study convection waves using multiple-aircraft observations. The multi-aircraft investigation took advantage of the availability of the Lidar equipped NASA Electra which was capable of remotely...
Spontaneous Ice Nucleation
This study continued prior investigation of spontaneous ice nucleation to further the understanding of cirrus cloud behavior. High altitude atmospheric samples were collected by aircraft in clear air and upwind of lenticular clouds for use in this...
Aircraft instrumentation TRAINing program
The Aircraft Instrumentation TRAINing program (ATRAIN) was a pilot program to train students in observational techniques in response to a perceived imminent shortage of upcoming scientists adequately trained to effectively use the NCAR facilities. As...
Baruch Marine Laboratory support
BARUCH includes one PAM station located at the Hugo Relief Station, South Carolina, near Georgetown, South Carolina. The station was installed at the site in response to an appeal for help following damage from the passage of Hurricane Hugo. As an...
Cloud Droplet Chemistry
The CDC project investigated how droplet chemistry is affected by droplet growth processes, chemical reactions, and entrainment. Two different collection methods for cloud water were used: the Mohnen slotted rods, which collected a bulk cloud water...
The purpose of the NO Lightning project was to measure the production of NO and O3 by electrified clouds and to relate this to the occurrence of cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning. The measurements were taken near Langmuir Laboratory (Socorro,...
Second ISLSCP [International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project] Field Experiment
FIFE II is a supplement to FIFE in which aircraft were used for volumetric budget studies associated with the Konza site, since analysis of the 1987 data has shown that volumetric budgets may be feasible. Aircraft were also used to aid in verification...
North Dakota Thunderstorm Project
The purpose of this project was to continue studies of the influence of convective clouds and thunderstorms on the distribution of tropospheric trace gases, including NOy, CO, NMCH, O3, and on the distribution of solar UV radiation. The aircraft...
Precipitaiton Augmentation for Crops Experiment
The Precipitation Augmentation for Crops Experiment (CROPS) was run jointly by NOAA Flatland Radar Project and Illinois State WAter Survey during the summer of 1989 near Champaign, Illinois. Specific objectives were to examine the effects of seeding...
SDSMT T-28 Aircraft
The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT) armored T-28 aircraft was operated under cooperative agreements between SDSMT and the National Science Foundation (NSF) Lower Atmospheric Observing Facility program. The T-28 supported over 20...
Central Pacific Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment
The Central Pacific Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (CPACE) flew a Lockheed Electra airplane to sample chemical species over the Pacific with the goal of understanding the ways that phytoplankton interact with the Earth's atmosphere and affect the...
Contrail Studies Airborne Exhaust
The primary objectives of the Contrail Studies Airborne Exhaust project were (1) the precise determination of the conditions under which a plume forms in the exhaust from the engines of the NCAR Sabreliner, and (2) comparison of those conditions with...
Particulate matter Airborne Sampling INlet experiment
The major objective of the Particulate matter Airborne Sampling INlet experiment (PASIN) project was to determine airborne aerosol inlet losses due to inertial and electrophoretic processes in sampling inlets. It was observed in previous studies that...
Shelf MIxed Layer Experiment
The SMILE program was a cooperative, integrated study designed to address the fundamental question of how the surface boundary layer over the continental shelf responds to atmospheric forcing, i.e., the input of momentum, turbulence, and heat through...
Experiment on Rapidly-Intensifying Cyclones over the Atlantic
This project deals with examining the role of the baroclinic boundary layer processes in explosive cyclogenesis. The hypothesis was an important process in conjunction with other (large scale) forcing. Another objective of the project was to compare...
Boulder Air Quality
Boulder Air Quality (BAQ) experiment was located near Boulder, Colorado. The goal was a study of winter air quality along the Front Range of Colorado.
Smog: Photochemical reactions producing ozone-containing smog
Photochemical ozone production, or "smog", plays an important role in air quality and global climate. Reactive nitrogen compounds are key catalysts in ozone production, but the critical concentrations are well below the detection limit of commercial...
Sulfur Measurement Studies
In this experiment three sulphur dioxide monitoring instruments, flame photometric, enhanced filter, and gold film were tested for suitability for aircraft use. A pulsed fluorescence monitor was also tested. Sampling was made under clean and polluted...
Terminal Doppler Weather Radar
The Terminal Doppler Weather Radar development project objective was to make time-specific 0 - 3 hour forcasts of convective weather within 10 km of Denver's Stapleton International Airport.
ICE allows for the development and evaluation of sensors for the PAM network. A network design by Gerald Albright with input from Frederick Brock (University of Oklahoma), consisting of six PAM stations, was erected at the Marshall field site, Boulder...
3CPO Trace Gas Measurements Program
The 3CPO Trace Gas Measurements Program was a study of the influence of convective clouds and thunderstorms on the distribution of tropospheric trace gases, including N0y, CO, NMCH, 03, and on the distribution of solar UV radiation. Aircraft...
ELectra raDOME tests
This project consists of a series of test flights from May 4 - 13, 1988 to evaluate a new radome on the NCAR Electra (Tail number: N308D). On May 10, an intercomparison flight was flown with the NCAR King Air and the data were merged into a single file...
Pacific Ocean Photochemistry Experiment
The Pacific Ocean Photochemistry Experiment required ground based meterological observations in conjunction with air sampling equipment for the study of the Pacific air mass near Hawaii's Mauna Loa Observatory from April through May, 1988. To fulfill...
Snow-Shading Boundary-Layer Interaction Measurements
The random location of snow-bare ground boundaries in a given region and their temporal modifications make aircraft the best practical platform the observe the structure of the snow breeze. The NCAR King Air N312D was instrumented and flown during the...
Cloud Microphysical Measurements and Radar Polarization
The major objective of this project was to improve the understanding of the mechanisms of precipitation formation via the ice phase, especially for frontal and upslope conditions near the Alps. The experimental technique was to obtain well coordinated...
VALI: Cloud Oxidation Experiment
The In Cloud Oxidation Experiment has made use of a single PAM station from November 1987 through September 09 1989 to support field measurements for the study of in-cloud sulphur dioxide oxidation. The station, located on Elk Mountain approximately 8...
VALI87: Cloud Oxidation Experiment
A single PAM station provided data through the 1987 period of interest during the Cloud Oxidation Experiment. The station, located on Elk Mountain approximately 80 miles north-west of Laramie, has been used to thermodynamically estimate the cloud base...
ELectra SCAlar Measurement Evaluation
Five identical temperature sensors were mounted on the Electra to evaluate the possible flow deformation effects on scalar measurements made on the fuselage near the radome. Effects of sensor location, airspeed, altitude and time of day were tested for.
Transition to a Thunderstorm
This project was directed by William Winn (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, NMIMT) to study thunderstorm development over the Langmuir Laboratory in the Magdalena Mountains in New Mexico. The primary objective was to study the processes...
Convective Initiation Downburst Experiment
The Convection Initiation and Downburst Experiment (CINDE) was conducted in the Denver, Colorado area from 22 June to 7 August 1987 to study processes leading to the formation of deep convection and the physics of downbursts. A total of 6 Doppler...
Processing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation-V
PRECP-V was a multilaboratory effort, organized by the National Laboratory Consortium and the U.S. Department of Energy, and was in coordination with other projects in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) by the Interagency Task...
First ISLSCP Field Experiment
The First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) was a large-scale climatology project conducted on the Konza Prairie in Kansas. The general objectives of FIFE were to: improve understanding of carbon...
The Taiwan Area Mesoscale Experiment
The Taiwan Area Mesoscale Experiment (TAMEX) was a cooperative research program between scientists of the Republic of China and the United States to understand the mesoscale dynamics and microphysical processes responsible for heavy precipitation that...
Cloudwater Hydroperoxides, Phase 1
Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment - 2B
Four PAMII stations were located near Manaus, Brazil during April through May, 1987, in support of NASA's ABLE-IIB experiment. The purpose of the ABLE experiment was the study of convective transport of trace gases (surface, and cloud mass transports)...
Equatorial Mesoscale EXperiment
The Equatorial Mesoscale Experiment (EMEX) was designed to test one main hypothesis, namely that the net diabatic heating associated with the near equatorial convective cloud systems is strongest in the upper troposphere. EMEX explored the vertical air...
During the Sodium Lidar (NaLidar) project, airborne lidar measurements were taken over the central US of atmospheric density perturbations in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere and of the mesospheric sodium layer to test a new sodium lidar...
First ISLSCP Regional Experiment
The overall goal of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) is to improve our understanding of satellite measurements relating particularly to the fluxes of momentum, heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide from land...
Carpenter Wyoming study
Four PAMII stations were deployed near Carpenter, Wyoming in a one-mile square network during September and October, 1986. These stations provided background meteorological information and were used in particular to determine the convergence of the...
Microburst and Severe Thunderstorm Experiment
Project MIST involved fourty-one PAMII stations arranged in a dense cluster around the Huntsville, Alabama airport during June and July, 1986. The full PAM field base was deployed with one of the doppler radars, and an aircraft tracking system, and...
Satellite Precipitation and Cloud Experiment
The SPACE project operated as an adjuct to the Microburst and Severe Thunderstorm (MIST) experiment, which in turn was part of the Cooperative Huntsville Meterological Experiment (COHMEX). 11 PAM-II stations were deployed in a wide circle around...
Trace Gas Profiles III
This project was a continued study of the influence of convective clouds and thunder storms on the distribution of tropospheric trace gases including N0X CO and O3 and on the distribution of solar UV radiation. The aircraft measurements were the...
Hydrological Atmospheric Pilot Experiment - Modelisation du BiLan Hydrique
The major goal of the Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot EXperiment (HAPEX) was to measure the hydrological budget and evaporation flux at the scale of a general circulation model grid square (i.e. 10 km2). In support of this goal, networks were operated for...
Cooperative Huntsville Meterological Experiment (COHMEX)
This project was an combined effort in support of Microburst and Severe Thunderstorm (MIST) and NASA-sponsored Satellite Precipitation and Cloud Experiment (SPACE), including support of Gregory Forbes (Pennsylvania State University), V.N. Bringi ...
Frontal Air-Sea INteraction EXperiment
The purpose of the Frontal Air-Sea INteraction EXperiment (FASINEX) was to study the oceanic and atmospheric dynamics and interactions around a sea surface temperature front. The experiment took place south of Bermuda and involved several ships,...
Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment
The Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) was a four year cooperative research project that studied winter cyclones along the East Coast of the United States. The aircraft were used during an intensive two month field program, in which the role of...
NADO involved two PAM stations from July, 1985, through August, 1986. These
were setup to the northeast of the Denver-metro area; in the vicinity of
Denver's new airport. The intension of the experiment was to provide long-term,
Remote Sensing of Cloud Water
The purpose of this project was to evaluate the remote sensing of cloud water content technique. The program was a field trial of the system in which comparisons were made between the liquid water distribution calculated from data obtained from a...
South Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program
The objective of BOLDOS/SCCCAMP was to obtain a comprehensive aerometric data base of mesoscale transport and oxidant production to develop a photochemical simulation model which is representative of the South Central Coast Air Basin.
DYnamics and Chemistry Of Marine Stratocumulus experiment
The purpose of DYCOMS was to investigate the chemistry, dynamics and microphysics of the marine stratocumulus layer off the California coast in summer. This marine stratocumulus region is formed under a strong inversion in the marine boundary layer....
Joint HaWaiian Rainband Project
Four experiments were conducted in Hawaii in summer 1985, one primarily by NCAR scientists (William Cooper and Darrel Baumgardner of RAF and James Dye of the Convective Storms Division) and the others by university scientists (David Johnson of the...
TRiple AirCraft Intercomparison
A Triple-Aircraft Intercomparison (TRACI) was flown in July and October of 1985. Both the B200T, King Air and the L-188 Electra aircrafts were flown using fixed vanes, while the Sabreliner, Model 60 was flown using a nose radome. Information obtained...
Convection Waves/Convective Waves
The Convection Wave project was a multi-aircraft investigation into the structure and behavior of gravity wave systems over convectively active boundary layers (CBLs) in the presence of vertical wind shear. These 'convection waves' occur over flat...
Trace Gas Profiles - II
Trace Gas II is a continued study of the influence of convective clouds and thunderstorms on the distribution of tropospheric trace gases including N0X, CO and O3 and on the distribution of solar UV radiation. The aircraft measurements were the primary...
Atmospheric Sulfur Gases
This project was a study on sources and transport of sulfur compounds in the atmosphere. The project obtained concentrations of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a biogenic precursor gas of sulfate aerosol in the marine atmosphere. Vertical profiles were...
Prestorm occurred during May and June, of 1985 and was centered around and to the south of Witchita, Kansas NCAR Doppler radars CP-3 and CP-4 documented the internal air motion and reflectivity structure with the specific objective os showing a higher...
Lidar Cirrus Studies II
In this study measurements of atmospheric state parameters, particle size distribution, particle shape and concentration, and the various components of the radiation budget within cirrus clouds were measured. A ground-based polarization diversity lidar...
Bridger Range Study
The Bridger Range Study was a short program of microphysical sampling in wintertime orographic clouds. Liquid water content in-cloud ice nuclei plume behavior over the target and microphysical effects of anthropogenic ice nuclei on precipitation...
RYBICKA Wheatfield Plume Flux Support
Rybicka is the name of a farm near Brighton, Colorado. RYBICA project is a single PAM station set up in support of the Wheatfield Plume Flux study. The intention of the Wheatfield Plume Flux study was to examine trace gas transport to and from the...
Colorado Orographic Seeding Experiment
Coordinated polarization lidar, Ku-band radar and dual-channel microwave radiometer observations of a deep orographic cloud system were collected from a mountain-base site in northwestern Colorado as part of the Colorado Orographic Seeding Experiment ...
Trace Gas Profiles
Trace gas profiles was a study to investigate the influence of convective clouds and thunderstorms on the distribution of tropospheric trace gases including N0X, CO and 03 and on the distribution of solar UV radiation.
This project was a field test of the sampling system for measuring 222Rn. This technique was later used in the project DYCOMS to measure 222Rn in and just above the marine boundary layer of the stratocumulus region to estimate the rate of entrainment...
Cumulonimbus Mass Flux
The Cumulonimbus Mass Flux study collected convergence measurements around cumulonimbus clouds over the Magdalena Mountain Range of New Mexico in the vicinity of the Langmuir Laboratory. The Sabreliner was used to obtain horizontal mass fluxes in and...
PAM stations at 1984 Olympics
10 PAM-II stations were deployed near the Los Angeles 1984 Olympics. Data were collected from 1984-07-15 to 1984-08-11.
Shelfbreak was a program for field observational study of the shelf/slope front in the Middle Atlantic Bight. This front is an important water mass boundary of the thermohaline class extending along the shelf break from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank....
PHOENIX - 1984
PHOENIX-84 addressed dual objectives of improvements in Doppler radar techniques of measuring turbulence, pressure and buoyancy fields in the lower atmosphere, and evaluation of PBL momentum, energy and buoyancy budgets and testing of models and...
May Polarization Experiment 1984
MAYPOLE84 was a joint experiment between FOF at NCAR, OSU (Ohio State University), CSU (Colorado State University), and NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). The experiment was conducted near Boulder, Colorado during May and June 198...
This project was an investigation of the atmospheric chemistry underlying the phenomenon of acid precipitation. The instrumented aircraft was used to measure atmospheric acids, bases, their precursors, products, and reactants in the Eastern U.S. both...
Stratospheric-Troposphere Exchange Project
Stratospheric-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) was a project funded by NASA and NOAA. From the STEP homepage: The Stratospheric-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) has two objectives: A. Investigate the mechanism and rates of irreversible transfer...
Atmospheric Forcing of Circulation in Gulf of California - II
This project was a continuation of prior studies of the spatial variability of the atmospheric fields and air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture over the Gulf of California during the summer of 1983. This project studied atmospheric fields and...
Lake Effect Snow Storms - 1984
In this study state parameters, motion fields, and microphysical parameters were measured from two aircraft and combined with data from multiple Doppler radars in an effort to increase our knowledge of the organization, internal structure, and...
New England Winter Storms
The New England Winter Storms study addresses mechanisms of band formation in a New England winter storm. The structure of the bands and their environment are documented with synoptic observations, radar data and analyses of instrumented aircraft...
MIT experiment was from October 1983 to Apri 1984
Lidar Cirrus Studies
The Lidar Cirrus Studies project took in situ measurements of atmospheric state parameters, particle size distribution, particle shape and concentration, and the various components of the radiation budget within cirrus clouds with the Sabreliner....