This dataset contains Russian Historical Soil Temperature Data. This data set is a collection of monthly and annual average soil temperatures measured at Russian meteorological stations. Data were recovered from many sources and compiled by staff at the University of Colorado, USA, and the Russian Academy of Sciences in Puschino, Russia. Soil temperatures were measured at depths of 0.02 to 3.2 m using bent stem thermometers, extraction thermometers, and electrical resistance thermistors. Data coverage extends from the 1800s through 1990, but is not continuous. Data are not available for all stations for the entire period of coverage. For example, data collection began at many stations in the 1930s and 1950s, and not all stations continued taking measurements through 1990. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Office of Polar Programs (OPP) awards OPP-9614557, OPP-9907541, and OPP-0229766. Data are available as tar.gz files.