Regional Survey of Greenland, 1988
Two (2) 2 meter snow pits dug and sampled in 1988, 3 cm sampling interval
Five (4) 4 meter snow pits dug and sampled in 1988, 3 cm sampling interval
Two 6 meter snow pits dug and sampled in 1988, 3 cm sampling interval
Surface snow samples
DATA SETS AVAILABLE:
2 m and 4 m snow pits: Chemistry, stable isotopes, density, radionuclide data
for select pits
6 m snow pits: Chemisty, stable isotopes, density, radionuclide data
Surface snow samples: Chemistry
The pits and surface snow samples were collected by the Glacier Research Group
(GRG), using established protocols to prevent contamination. The pits were
sampled at a 3 cm sample interval. The samples for major ion chemistry
remained frozen until melted for analysis in the GRG lab, located at the
University of New Hampshire (UNH).
Chemical analysis of the snow samples from the pits initially measured eight of
the major ionic species, Na, NH4, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, NO3, SO4 and oxygen isotopes.
Select pits had additional analyzes for H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), MSA
(methylsulfonic acid), and 210Pb.
All data except the oxygen isotope data, which is from the University of
Washington, were generated by GRG at the University of New Hampshire.
Analytical methods: Major ion analyses was by ion chromatography (IC).
A Dionex AS4A column with suppressed conductivity detection and a 0.5 ml sample
loop was used for the anions. A Dionex Fast Cation 1 with a Fast Cation II
with suppressed conductivity dectection and a switching valve and a 0.5 ml
sample loop was used for the cations. MSA was determined using a AS4 column,
a 3 ml loop, and suppressed conductivity. Samples for H2O2 were analyzed using
a peroxidase-catalysed reaction measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry.
210Pb was determined by alpha spectrometry, counting the daughter, 210Po.
7Be, 134Cs, and 137Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry.
Stratigraphy is also available for each pit.
Contact:
Sallie Whitlow, Glacier Research Group, Institute for the Study of Earth,
Oceans and Space, Morse Hall, University of New Hampshire, Durham,
New Hampshire 03824
603-862-4129 siw@unh.edu
Dr. Paul Mayewski, Glacier Research Group, Institute for the Study of Earth,
Oceans and Space, Morse Hall, University of New Hampshire, Durham,
New Hampshire 03824
603-862-3146
Publications:
Dibb, Jack, 1989. The Chernobyl reference horizon(?) in the Greenland ice
sheet. Geophy. Res. Letters, 16, 987-990.
Dibb, J. E., 1990. Recent deposition of 210Pb on the Greenland ice sheet:
variations in space and time. Annals of Glacio., 14, 51-54.
Yang, Q., P.A. Mayewski, E. Linder, S. Whitlow, and M. Twickler. Chemical
species spatial distribution and relationship to elevation and snow
accumulation rate over the Greenland ice sheet. In review, Jour. of Geophy.
Res., expected publication, 1996.
Data Fields
-999 indicates no data
-888 indicates sample below the level of detection
Precision is the average of the coefficient of variations calculated for
each pair of duplicate aliquots analyzed.
Pit_1_Ions: (location N77o11' W60 43' 1650 masl, 2-3 May 1988, 6 meter pit)
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
Chloride (Cl), micrograms per liter; 6% precision
Nitrate (NO3), micrograms/L; 1% precision
Sulfate (SO4), micrograms/L; 1% precision
Sodium (Na), micrograms/L; 3% precision
Ammonium (NH4), micrograms/L; 3% precision
Potassium (K), micrograms/L; 14% precision
Magnesium (Mg), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Calcium (Ca), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Methylsulfonic acid (MSA), micrograms/L; 10% precision
Oxygen isotopes (18O), standard per mil notation
Pit_1_210Pb
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
210Pb, disintegrations per minute per kilogram (dpm/kg)
sigma, one standard deviation based on counting uncertainty
Pit_1_H2O2
Top, depth, meters
Bottom, depth, meters
H2O2, micrograms/L; 5% precision
Pit_1_den
Depth, meters
Density, grams per cubic centimeter
Pit_2_ions (N77o12' W59o12', 1700 masl, 8 May, 1988, 4 meter pit)
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
Chloride (Cl), micrograms per liter; precision 6%
Nitrate (NO3), micrograms/L; precision 1%
Sulfate (SO4), micrograms/L; precision 1%
Sodium (Na), micrograms/L; precision 3%
Ammonium (NH4), micrograms/L; 3% precision
Potassium (K), micrograms/L; 14% precision
Magnesium (Mg), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Calcium (Ca), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Oxygen isotopes (18O), standard per mil notation
H2O2, micrograms/L; 5% percision
Pit_2_210Pb
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
210Pb, disintegrations per minute per kilogram (dpm/kg)
sigma, one standard deviation based on counting uncertainty
Pit_2_Density
Depth, meters
Density, grams per cubic centimeter
Pit_3_ions (N77o12 W59 12, 1700 masl, 15 meters south of pit 2, 2 meter pit)
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
Chloride (Cl), micrograms per liter; precision 6%
Nitrate (NO3), micrograms/L; precision 1%
Sulfate (SO4), micrograms/L; precision 1%
Sodium (Na), micrograms/L; precision 3%
Ammonium (NH4), micrograms/L; 3% precision
Potassium (K), micrograms/L; 14% precision
Magnesium (Mg), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Calcium (Ca), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Oxygen isotopes (18O), standard per mil notation
Pit_3_H2O2
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
H2O2, micrograms/L; 5% percision
Pit_4_Chem (N66o35' W45o30', 2130 masl, 15 May 1988, 2 meter pit)
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
Chloride (Cl), micrograms per liter; 6% precision
Nitrate (NO3), micrograms/L; 1% precision
Sulfate (SO4), micrograms/L; 1% precision
Sodium (Na), micrograms/L; 3% precision
Ammonium (NH4), micrograms/L; 3% precision
Potassium (K), micrograms/L; 14% precision
Magnesium (Mg), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Calcium (Ca), IC data, micrograms/L; 5% precision
Oxygen isotopes (18O), standard per mil notation
Pit_4_Dens
Depth, meters
Density, grams per cubic centimeter
Pit_5_Chem (N66o 57 W44o 29', 2250 masl, 19 May 1988, 4 meter pit)
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
Chloride (Cl), micrograms per liter; 6% precision
Nitrate (NO3), micrograms/L; 1% precision
Sulfate (SO4), micrograms/L; 1% precision
Sodium (Na), micrograms/L; 3% precision
Ammonium (NH4), micrograms/L; 3% precision
Potassium (K), micrograms/L; 14% precision
Magnesium (Mg), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Calcium (Ca), IC data, micrograms/L; 5% precision
Oxygen isotopes (18O), standard per mil notation
Pit_5_Dens
Depth, meters
Density, grams per cubic centimeter
Pit_6_Chem (N67o12' W43o48', 2450 masl, 21 May 1988, 6 meter pit)
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
Oxygen isotopes (18O), standard per mil notation
Chloride (Cl), microequivalents per liter; 6% precision
Nitrate (NO3), microequivalents/L; 1% precision
Sulfate (SO4), microequivalents/L; 1% precision
Sodium (Na), microequivalents/L; 3% precision
Ammonium (NH4), microequivalents/L; 3% precision
Potassium (K), microequivalents/L; 14% precision
Magnesium (Mg), microequivalents/L; 5% precision
Calcium (Ca), microequivalents/L; 5% precision
Methylsulfonic acid (MSA), micrograms/L; 10% precision
Pit_6_H2O2
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), micrograms/L, 5% percision
Pit_6_Dens
Depth, meters
Density, grams per cubic centimeter
Pit_7_Chem (N64o46' W44o07', 2745 masl, 28 May 1988, 4 meter pit)
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
Chloride (Cl), micrograms per liter; 6% precision
Nitrate (NO3), micrograms/L; 1% precision
Sulfate (SO4), micrograms/L; 1% precision
Sodium (Na) micrograms/L; 3% precision
Ammonium (NH4), micrograms/L; 3% precision
Potassium (K), micrograms/L; 14% precision
Magnesium (Mg), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Calcium (Ca), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Oxygen isotopes (18O), standard per mil notation
Pit_7_Dens
Depth, meters
Density, grams per cubic centimeter
Pit_7_210Pb
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
210Pb, disintegrations per minute per kilogram (dpm/kg)
sigma, one standard deviation based on counting uncertainty
Pit_8_Chem (N645o38' W43o40' 2550 masl, 31 May 1988, 4 meter pit)
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
Chloride (Cl), micrograms per liter; 6% precision
Nitrate (NO3), micrograms/L; 1% precision
Sulfate (SO4), micrograms/L; 1% precision
Sodium (Na) micrograms/L; 3% precision
Ammonium (NH4), micrograms/L; 3% precision
Potassium (K), micrograms/L; 14% precision
Magnesium (Mg), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Calcium (Ca), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Oxygen isotopes (18O), standard per mil notation
Pit_8_Dens
Depth, meters
Density, grams per cubic centimeter
Surface snow data sets:
Traverse_1
Distance, kilometers from Camp Century
Oxygen isotopes (18O), standard per mil notation
Sodium (Na) microequivalents/L; 3% precision
Ammonium (NH4), microequivalents/L; 3% precision
Potassium (K), microequivalents/L; 14% precision
Magnesium (Mg), microequivalents/L; 5% precision
Calcium (Ca), microequivalents/L; 5% precision
Chloride (Cl), microequivalents/L; 6% precision
Nitrate (NO3), microequivalents/L; 1% precision
Sulfate (SO4), microequivalents/L; 1% precision
Traverse_2
Distance, kilometers from Dye 2
Sodium (Na) micrograms/L; 3% precision
Ammonium (NH4), micrograms/L; 3% precision
Potassium (K), micrograms/L; 14% precision
Magnesium (Mg), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Calcium (Ca), micrograms/L; 5% precision
Chloride (Cl), micrograms/L; 6% precision
Nitrate (NO3), micrograms/L; 1% precision
Sulfate (SO4), micrograms/L; 1% precision
210Pb_7Be_Fresh snow
Location, kilometers, includes date sample taken
210Pb, disintegrations per minute per kilogram (dpm/kg)
sigma, one standard deviation based on counting uncertainty
7Be, dpm/kg
sigma, one standard deviation based on counting uncertainty
Chernobyl_data
Pit number, corresponds to pits listed above
Top depth, meters
Bottom depth, meters
134Cs, picocuries per kilogram (pCi/kg)
sigma, one standard deviation based on counting uncertainty
137Cs, pCi/kg
sigma, one standard deviation based on counting uncertainty