This dataset contains historical data for 35 Russian stations located between approximately 117-145 E and 56-72 N. The data represent air temperature, ground temperature and snow depth measurements collected between 1882-1994, but the time period covered by each station and quantities measured are variable.
Measurements were taken as part of the Land-Atmosphere-Ice Interactions - Arctic Transitions in the Land-Atmosphere System (LAII-ATLAS) program. The research project was funded by the Arctic System Sciences (ARCSS) Program, grant numbers OPP-9721347 and OPP-9732126.
Data are available for ordering through NCAR.
Romanovsky, V.E., editor. 2003. East Siberian air, ground temperature, and snow depth measurements, 1882-1994. Boulder, CO: National Center for Atmospheric Research, ARCSS Data Archive.
|Data format||Tab delimited text files|
|Spatial coverage and resolution||Data were collected at 35 Russian stations, located between 55.58 N and 71.59 N, and 145.21 E and 116.55 E|
|Temporal coverage and resolution||Data collected daily from 1882-09-01 to 1994-12-31; averaged three times each month|
|File naming convention||Files are named according to the station name where the data were collected|
|File size||6 KB to 102 KB|
|Parameter(s)||Air temperature, ground temperature, snow depth|
Data are available as tab-delimited text files.
Each file is named according to the name of the station where the data were collected. For example, "Amga.txt" contains data from the Amga region.
File sizes range from 6 KB to 102 KB.
Data were collected from 35 Russian stations within the following geographic coordinates:
Southernmost Latitude: 55.58 N
Northernmost Latitude: 71.59 N
Westernmost Longitude: 145.21 E
Easternmost Longitude: 116.55 E
Data were collected as a time series of point data. Daily measurements of snow cover depth were taken from three snow measuring rods placed in a meteorological enclosure (size unknown). In individual cases, when the meteorological enclosure was unrepresentative of the surroundings in respect to snow cover formation, the snow measuring rods were placed near the station (distance unknown) on a specially selected plot.
The data were collected from 1882-09-01 to 1998-09.
The daily measurements of snow cover depth were averaged at the end of a 10-day period into a single value. This averaging was done three times per month, with the final period in the month containing from eight to 11 days of data, depending on the month.
The parameters measured were air temperature, ground temperature, and snow depth.
The following Station Information Table includes detailed information for each of the 35 stations.
|Station Number||Station Name (Platform/Site)||Altitude||Latitude||Longitude||Soil||Soil Profile||Instrument||Data Version||Data Coverage (start/stop)||Remarks|
|251||Chaingda (the station is located within the Amga region, on the second terrace of the left part of the Amga River valley)||62.17 N||119.51 E||silt||final||195404/199512|
|252||Chumpuruk||64.14 N||116.55 E||silt||final||195512/199512|
|241||Lensk (Mukhtuya)||60.43 N||114.53 E||silt||final||194101/199512|
|242||Macha||59.56 N||117.36 E||silt||final||195101/199512|
|243||Nagornyi||55.58 N||124.53 E||silt||final||194901/199012|
|246||Sukhana||68.48 N||117.58 E||silt||final||194806/199012|
|247||Tongulakh||61.55 N||124.33 E||silt||final||195208/199012|
|250||Uchur||58.44 N||130.37 E||silt||final||195208/199012|
|249||Ust'-Moma||66.27 N||143.14 E||silt||final||195208/199012|
|13||Oimyakon||63.16 N||143.09 E||silt||final||194801/199012|
|10||Olenek||68.5 N||112.40 E||silt||mercury thermometer, snow measuring rods||final||194803/199506|
|3||Yakutsk (station is located at the middle part of the Lena River flow)||62.10 N||129.80 E||silt with peat||(1961 - 07.24.1964)=0-25-30sm silt with humus, 30-60 silt, 60-180 sand with silt inclusions, 180-200 fine-grained sand, 200-300 silt with touches of fine-grained sand||final||1882301/199612|
|238||Drughina||68.12 N||145.21 E||silt||final||194101/199212|
|287||Tiksi||71.59 N||128.92 E||silt||final||193201/199509|
|233||Amga (the station is located within the Amga region, on the second terrace of the left side of the Amga River valley)||147 m||60.9 N||131.98 E||silt||final||The station was moved several times before October 1938. Since October 1938 the station has been operated in the local community of Amga. The station was moved on October 11, 1943, and on August 1, 1957, but remains in the Amga community.|
|235||Bestyakhskaya Zveroferma (the station is located at the northern part of the Central Yakutian plain, at the left part of the Lena River downward valley, on the bank of the small Bestyah River)||60 m||65.2 N||124.2 E||Until February 1950, peat-like with traces of silt; since August 16,1951, peat with traces of sand||mercury thermometer, snow measuring rods||final||195907/199412||Station was moved in August 1936, August 1937, and in June 1938.|
|unknown||Borogontsy||160 m||62.57 N||131.62 E||organic (humus)||0-3cm organic (humus), 3-35cm sand, 35-57cm silt, 150-320cm clay||mercury thermometer and snow measuring rods||final||195911/198812|
|253||Churapcha (the station is located in the Taiga zone, within the watershed of three rivers - Lena, Aldan and Amga - on the Churapcha Lake bank)||179 m||62.03 N||132.6 E||silty with organic inclusions||0-100cm silt with the traces of clay, 100-200cm clay with silt||mercury thermometer and snow measuring rods||final||193604/199412|
|187||Dobrolet (the station is located in the taiga zone, at the Lena and Amga rivers watershed)||468 m||60.37 N||127.50 E||clay||mercury thermometer and snow measuring rods||final||195907/199207||The station was moved on July 14, 1959.|
|237||Dzhardzhan||50 m||68.73 N||124.00 E||silt||mercury thermometer and snow measuring rods||final||193706/199809|
|239||Isit' (the station was located in the valley of the middle flow of the Lena River, on its left bank)||117 m||60.82 N||125.32 E||sandy silt until September 1942, and from September 4, 1945 until October 24, 1955; silt with peat since October 25, 1955.||0-20 cm silt with peat, 20-30 cm clay, 30-60 cm clay with sand, 60-80 cm sand, 80-105 cm clay with sand, 105-120 cm sand||mercury thermometer and snow measuring rods||final||193601/199612||The station was moved 7 km on October 3, 1942, and was returned to the original location September 4, 1945.|
|005||Kazach'e||20 m||70.75 N||136.22 E||data unavailable||data unavailable||data unavailable||data unavailable||data unavailable|
|240||Krest-Khal'dzhai||119 m||62.82 N||134.43 E||peat until September 27, 1947; light clay with floral residues since September 28, 1947||0-10 cm peat, 10-20 cm gray clay, 20-35 cm dense dark gray clay, 35-45 cm silt, 45-80 cm dense clay, 80-140 cm dense clay containing small amounts of ice, below 140 cm pure ice.||final||196010/199212||The station was moved 420 m on September 28, 1947.|
|244||Namtsy (the station is located on the second terrace of the Lena River Valley (middle flow), at the north part of village Namtsy)||90 m||62.73 N||129.67 E||silt with humus||final||196408/199412||The station was moved several times in 1935 and in 1941.|
|168||Okhotskiy Perevoz (the station is located in the taiga zone, in the middle Aldan River Valley, on top of the narrow ridge)||140 m||61.87 N||135.50 E||0-20 cm sandy silt, sand below||final||193804/199212|
|014||Olekminsk (the station is located in the left part of the Lena River Valley, in Olekminsk city)||223 m||60.4 N||120.42 E||silt until August 9, 1938; silt with pebbles from August 1938 until December 1945; silt from January 1946 until August 13, 1958||0-12 cm silt with peat, clay with small layer of hard soil below||final||188209/199212||The station was moved in August 1938, in January 1946, and in August 1958.|
|056||Pokrovsk||116 m||61.48 N||129.15 E||1945: 10-21 cm salty silt, 21-39 cm silt, 30-58 cm silt, 59-90 cm non dense silt, silt below||final||193101/199412||The station was moved in 1935 and in 1945.|
|245||Sangar (the station is located at the right part of the Lena River Valley, middle flow)||92 m||63.97 N||127.47 E||after moving in 1946: silt with peat and sand||final||193601/199412||The station was moved on July 12, 1946.|
|unknown||Sanyyakhtat (the station is located on the second terrace of the left part of the Lena River Valley, middle flow)||139 m||60.7 N||124.0 E||0-15 cm ashen-gray soil, 15-30 cm silt, 30-70 cm sandy||final||195811/198807||The station was moved on July 9, 1954.|
|248||Ust'-Maya||169 m||60.38 N||134.45 E||October 1930 - September 1943: silt; since October 1943: sandy silt||0-15 cm peat, 15-170 cm sandy silt with clay layers(5-7 cm thick), silt below 170 cm||final||189701/199212||Until 1906, the station was in the village of Ust-Maya; from 1906 until 1930, the station was in the town of Petropvlavskom; in 1930 it was moved back to Ust-Maya and remained there until 1943; since 1943, it has been located in Petropvloskom.|
|011||Verkhoyansk (the station is located in the Yanskaya mountain depression, on the first terrace of the right part of the River Yana Valley)||136 m||67.55 N||133.38 E||sandy silt with mud||s||final||188501/199412||The station was moved in October 1940, in August 1947, in October 1954, in August 1955, in October 1956, and in July 1960.|
|unknown||Vilyuisk (the station is located in the Central Yakutian depression, on the left bank of the River Vilui, in the town of Viluisk)||110 m||63.77 N||121.62 E||0-12 cm humus with inclusions of wood residues, sand below||final||190801/199412||Before 1939, the station was moved several times.|
|254||Ytyk-Kel' (the station is located on the Lena-Aldan watershed, on the first terrace of the left part of the Tatty River Valley, 500 m to the west from the edge of the left river bank)||120 m||62.37 N||133.55 E||silt with humus and floral residues||final||195612/199412||The station was moved in October 1947.|
|006||Zhigansk (the station is located in the northern part of the Central Yakutian depression, on the left bank of the Lena River; the meteorological enclosure is located 2-2.5 km north from station Zhigansk)||33 m||66.77 N||123.4 E||silt with peat||1961 to July 24, 1964: 0-30 cm silt with humus, 30-100 cm silt with separate stone inclusions, 100-200 cm sandy silt with stones, 200-320 cm sand with small amount of mud; since July 25, 1964: 0-20 cm peat, 20-60 cm clay, 60-110 cm sandy, 110-320 cm sand with small amount of mud||final||196010/199412||The station was moved on September 4, 1957, on September 9, 1960, and on July 25, 1964.|
|unknown||Khatyryk-Khomo (the station is located at the central part of Central-Yakutian depression, within the right side of downward valley of the Vilui River)||85 m||63.8 N||125.1 E||humus and sand||0-20 cm humus, sand below||mercury thermometer and snow measuring rods||final||195705/199212||The station was moved on December 20,1956.|
The daily mean snow depth was calculated by averaging the readings on the three rods, rounded to the nearest whole cm. If the average was less then .5 cm, the mean was considered zero, and if it was greater than or equal to .5 cm , it was considered 1 cm. If snow, ice, or melt water was absent at one of the rods, then the mean depth was calculated by dividing the sum of the readings by three.
Temperatures are in degrees Celsius, to 0.1 degree of accuracy.
Snow depth measurements were collected with measuring rods; air and ground temperature measurements were taken with mercury thermometers with high inertia.
Refer to the data files for ranges of snow depth, air, and ground temperatures.
Data are in tables. The number and types of columns vary across stations and may include the following:
Station_ID = Station ID number
Date = Date
mean AT = mean monthly air temperature in degrees Celsius
SD-I = number of days with snow on the ground
SD-II = mean snow depth for the first ten days of the month
SD-III = mean snow depth for the second ten days of the month
SD mean = mean snow depth for the last eight to eleven days of the month
D0_2 = monthly mean Ground temperature at 0.2m depth
D0_4 = monthly mean Ground temperature at 0.4m depth
D0_8 = monthly mean Ground temperature at 0.8m depth
D1_6 = monthly mean Ground temperature at 1.6m depth
D3_2 = monthly mean Ground temperature at 3.2m depth
Missing data are indicated by the value 99.99.
Sample Data Table:
Many of the stations have been moved one or more times and the coordinates given in this document are approximate.
Some of the location descriptions in the Station Information Table, in the Station Name column, do not include cardinal direction details. For example, the Amga station (number 001), is described as being located within the Amga region, on the second terrace of the left side of the Amga River valley. No further information is available to determine the cardinal direction of the left side of the Amga River Valley.
Klimatologicheskii spravochnik SSSR, vypusk 24,po Yakutskoi ASSR, severnoi chasti Khabarovskogo kraya, Magadanskoi oblasti i severnoi chasti Kamchatskoi oblasti. Meteorologicheskie dannye za otdel'nye gody, chast' VII, Temperatura pochvy, tumany, grozy, meteli i grad. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1963.
English: Climatological reference of the USSR, issue 24. Yakut ASSR (Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic), northern part of the Kaborovski territory, Magadanski region and northern Kamchatka region. Meteorological data for separate years, part VII, including soil temperature, humidity, rainfall, snow, and hail. Hydrometrology, Leningrad, 1963.
Spravochnik po klimatu SSSR, vypusk 24, Yakutskaya ASSR, Meteorologicheskie dannye za otdel'nye gody, chast' VII, Temperatura pochvy. Yakutsk, 1975.
English: Reference book of Climate for the USSR, issue 24, Yakut ASSR, Meteorological data of separate years, part VII, soil temperature. Yakutsk, 1975.
World Meteorological Organization. 1984. Weather Reporting Vol. A, Handbook No. 9.