NPEO PMEL/CRREL Ice Temperature and Mass Balance Buoys for 2000, 2001, and 2002

North Pole Environmental Observatory
NSF Grant OPP-9910305
2000-2003 Ice Temperature and Mass Balance Buoy Data
          Deployed by Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL)
          and Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL)


NPEO2000-2002_IceBuoys_ReadMe.txt   (this document)

NP2000 CRREL Ice Buoys/

NP2001 CRREL Ice Buoys/

NP2002 CRREL Ice Buoys/


NPEO PMEL/CRREL Ice Temperature and Mass Balance Buoys for 2000, 2001, and 2002. 

Because of the large temperature arrays presented by the CRREL buoys, their data 
is provided in two or three separate files

- Internal Ice Temperature (C) from the air through the ice into the ocean beneath
    typically every 10 cm and every 12 hours  (.temp files)  These files 
    contain two headers;  one which identifies the buoy, followed by one which  
    lists the heights/depths at which temperature was measured.  A depth of 0 is the 
    position of the top of the ice at the time of deployment, positive numbers are 
    heights above the surface of the ice, negative numbers are depths from the top 
    surface of the ice.  The remaining lines of the file list the temperatures at 
    the depths/heights of the header, one line every 12 hours.   Temperatures were 
    measured at 11:30 GMT and 23:30 GMT (in some years 12Z and 24Z) each day.  
    Missing data are marked '1.e35'.
- Position from GPS  (.pos files)  Positions were determined every 
    hour, and the file lists the position at 11:00 and 23:00.

In 2002, the GPS units failed in both ice buoys before the end of the drift.
The positions file included here 'NPEO2002_icebuoys.pos' is from the Weather station 
   buoy 22207 deployed on the same floe.

- Mass balance buoys also measured two distances with acoustic pingers  (.snd files)
    They determined the distance (m) from the snow and ice to a pinger mounted on 
    a post, and the distance from the bottom of the ice to an upward-looking 
    underwater pinger.  Buoy 21078 at NPEO2002 is an axample.

These buoys were complimented by PMEL Weather and Radiometer buoys as well 
as the JCAD Buoys deployed by JAMSTEC.  The PMEL Buoys deployed at NPEO 2000 
and 2001 were severely damaged in early ice breakups and did not collect a 
useful record.

NPEO 2002-2003 PMEL Argos Buoys-
    22207 (PMEL Weather station) 
    20726 (PMEL Kipp&Zonen radiometers) 
    22204 (PMEL Eppley radiometers) 

Profile plots and other analysis using these data may be viewed at the NPEO 

    For further information concerning NPEO, please contact
      Dr. James Morison     (206) 543-1394
      Roger Andersen       (206) 543-1258
      Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington
      1013 NE 40th, Seattle, WA  98105-6698   USA      FAX (206) 616-3142

    For further information concerning these data, please contact
      Dr. James E. Overland     (206) 526-6795
      Sigrid Salo          (206) 526-6802
      Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL)
      NOAA R/PMEL, 7600 Sand Point Way N.E., Seattle, WA 98115-6349 
      Dr. Don Perovich     
      Dr. Jacqueline Richter-Menge
      Bruce Elder           
      ERDC-CRREL-RS ( Snow and Ice Branch ), 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH 03755-1290