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*Static-Dynamic Analysis of Security Metrics for Cyber-Physical Systems*In this paper, we improve recent results on the decentralized switched control problem to include the moving horizon case and apply it to a testbed system. Using known derivations for a centralized controller with look-ahead, we were able to extend the decentralized problem with finite memory to include receding horizon modal information. We then compare the performance of a switched controller with finite memory and look-ahead horizon to that of a linear time independent (LTI) controller using a simulation. The decentralized controller is further tested with a real-world system comprised of multiple model-sized hovercrafts.

State estimation is a fundamental problem for monitoring and controlling systems. Engineering systems interconnect sensing and computing devices over a shared bandwidth-limited channels, and therefore, estimation algorithms should strive to use bandwidth optimally. We present a notion of entropy for state estimation of switched nonlinear dynamical systems, an upper bound for it and a state estimation algorithm for the case when the switching signal is unobservable. Our approach relies on the notion of topological entropy and uses techniques from the theory for control under limited information. We show that the average bit rate used is optimal in the sense that, the eciency gap of the algorithm is within an additive constant of the gap between estimation entropy of the system and its known upper-bound. We apply the algorithm to two system models and discuss the performance implications of the number of tracked modes.

In distributed control systems with shared resources, participating agents can improve the overall performance of the system by sharing data about their personal preferences. In this paper, we formulate and study a natural tradeoff arising in these problems between the privacy of the agent’s data and the performance of the control system.We formalize privacy in terms of differential privacy of agents’ preference vectors. The overall control system consists of N agents with linear discrete-time coupled dynamics, each controlled to track its preference vector. Performance of the system is measured by the mean squared tracking error.We present a mechanism that achieves differential privacy by adding Laplace noise to the shared information in a way that depends on the sensitivity of the control system to the private data. We show that for stable systems the performance cost of using this type of privacy preserving mechanism grows as O(T 3/Nε2 ), where T is the time horizon and ε is the privacy parameter. For unstable systems, the cost grows exponentially with time. From an estimation point of view, we establish a lower-bound for the entropy of any unbiased estimator of the private data from any noise-adding mechanism that gives ε-differential privacy.We show that the mechanism achieving this lower-bound is a randomized mechanism that also uses Laplace noise.

State estimation is a fundamental problem for monitoring and controlling systems. Engineering systems interconnect sensing and computing devices over a shared bandwidth-limited channels, and therefore, estimation algorithms should strive to use bandwidth optimally. We present a notion of entropy for state estimation of switched nonlinear dynamical systems, an upper bound for it and a state estimation algorithm for the case when the switching signal is unobservable. Our approach relies on the notion of topological entropy and uses techniques from the theory for control under limited information. We show that the average bit rate used is optimal in the sense that, the efficiency gap of the algorithm is within an additive constant of the gap between estimation entropy of the system and its known upper-bound. We apply the algorithm to two system models and discuss the performance implications of the number of tracked modes.

In distributed control systems with shared resources, participating agents can improve the overall performance of the system by sharing data about their personal references. In this paper, we formulate and study a natural tradeoff arising in these problems between the privacy of the agent’s data and the performance of the control system.We formalize privacy in terms of differential privacy of agents’ preference vectors. The overall control system consists of *N* agents with linear discrete-time coupled dynamics, each controlled to track its preference vector. Performance of the system is measured by the mean squared tracking error. We present a mechanism that achieves differential privacy by adding Laplace noise to the shared information in a way that depends on the sensitivity of the control system to the private data. We show that for stable systems the performance cost of using this type of privacy preserving mechanism grows as *O*(*T*^{3 }/*N*ε^{2}), where T is the time horizon and ε is the privacy parameter. For unstable systems, the cost grows exponentially with time. From an estimation point of view, we establish a lower-bound for the entropy of any unbiased estimator of the private data from any noise-adding mechanism that gives ε-differential privacy. We show that the mechanism achieving this lower-bound is a randomized mechanism that also uses Laplace noise.

This article describes our recent progress on the development of rigorous analytical metrics for assessing the threat-performance trade-off in control systems. Computing systems that monitor and control physical processes are now pervasive, yet their security is frequently an afterthought rather than a first-order design consideration. We investigate a rational basis for deciding—at the design level—how much investment should be made to secure the system.

This paper considers a decentralized switched control problem where exact conditions for controller synthesis are obtained in the form of semidefinite programming (SDP). The formulation involves a discrete-time switched linear plant that has a nested structure, and whose system matrices switch between a finite number of values according to finite-state automation. The goal of this paper is to synthesize a commensurately nested switched controller to achieve a desired level of 2-induced norm performance. The nested structures of both plant and controller are characterized by block lower-triangular system matrices. For this setup, exact conditions are provided for the existence of a finite path-dependent synthesis. These include conditions for the completion of scaling matrices obtained through an extended matrix completion lemma.When individual controller dimensions are chosen at least as large as the plant, these conditions reduce to a set of linear matrix inequalities. The completion lemma also provides an algorithm to complete closed-loop scaling matrices, leading to inequalities for ontroller synthesis that are solvable either algebraically or numerically through SDP.

Published in IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems, volume 2, issue 4, December 2015.

We study the Lp induced gain of discretetime linear switching systems with graph-constrained switching sequences. We first prove that, for stable systems in a minimal realization, for every p ≥ 1, the Lp-gain is exactly characterized through switching storage functions. These functions are shown to be the pth power of a norm. In order to consider general systems, we provide an algorithm for computing minimal realizations. These realizations are rectangular systems, with a state dimension that varies according to the mode of the system. We apply our tools to the study on the of L2-gain. We provide algorithms for its approximation, and provide a converse result for the existence of quadratic switching storage functions. We finally illustrate the results with a physically motivated example.

We introduce a novel framework for the stability analysis of discrete-time linear switching systems with switching sequences constrained by an automaton. The key element of the framework is the algebraic concept of multinorm, which associates a different norm per node of the automaton, and allows to exactly characterize stability. Building upon this tool, we develop the first arbitrarily accurate approximation schemes for estimating the constrained joint spectral radius ρˆ, that is the exponential growth rate of a switching system with constrained switching sequences. More precisely, given a relative accuracy r > 0, the algorithms compute an estimate of ρˆ within the range [ ˆρ, (1+r)ρˆ]. These algorithms amount to solve a well defined convex optimization program with known time-complexity, and whose size depends on the desired relative accuracy r > 0.

Presented at the NSA Science of Security Quarterly Meeting, July 2016.

Presented at the NSA Science of Security Quarterly Meeting, July 2016.

The concept of differential privacy stems from the study of private query of datasets. In this work, we apply this concept to discrete-time, linear distributed control systems in which agents need to maintain privacy of certain preferences, while sharing information for better system-level performance. The system has N agents operating in a shared environment that couples their dynamics. We show that for stable systems the performance grows as O(T3/Nε2), where T is the time horizon and ε is the differential privacy parameter. Next, we study lower-bounds in terms of the Shannon entropy of the minimal mean square estimate of the system’s private initial state from noisy communications between an agent and the server. We show that for any of noise-adding differentially private mechanism, then the Shannon entropy is at least nN(1−ln(ε/2)), where n is the dimension of the system, and t he lower bound is achieved by a Laplace-noise-adding mechanism. Finally, we study the problem of keeping the objective functions of individual agents differentially private in the context of cloud-based distributed optimization. The result shows a trade-off between the privacy of objective functions and the performance of the distributed optimization algorithm with noise.

Presented at the Joint Trust and Security/Science of Security Seminar, April 26, 2016.

We present a controller synthesis algorithm for a discrete time reach-avoid problem in the presence of adversaries. Our model of the adversary captures typical malicious attacks envisioned on cyber-physical systems such as sensor spoofing, controller corruption, and actuator intrusion. After formulating the problem in a general setting, we present a sound and complete algorithm for the case with linear dynamics and an adversary with a budget on the total L2-norm of its actions. The algorithm relies on a result from linear control theory that enables us to decompose and precisely compute the reachable states of the system in terms of a symbolic simulation of the adversary-free dynamics and the total uncertainty induced by the adversary. We provide constraint-based synthesis algorithms for synthesizing open-loop and a closed-loop controllers using SMT solvers.

Prestented at the Joint Trust and Security/Science of Security Seminar, November 3, 2015.

Presented at the NSA Science of Security Quarterly Lablet Meeting, October 2015.

Presented at the Illinois Lablet Science of Security Bi-weekly Meeting, March 2015.

Presented at the NSA Science of Security Quarterly Meeting, October 2014.

Presented as part of the Illinois Science of Security Lablet Bi-Weekly Meeting, September 2014.

In this paper, we develop a new framework to analyze stability and stabilizability of Linear Switched Systems (LSS) as well as their gain computations. Our approach is based on a combination of state space operator descriptions and the Youla parametrization and provides a unified way for analysis and synthesis of LSS, and in fact of Linear Time Varying (LTV) systems, in any lp induced norm sense. By specializing to the l∞ case, we show how Linear Programming (LP) can be used to test stability, stabilizability and to synthesize stabilizing controllers that guarantee a near optimal closed-loop gain.

In this work we are interested in the stability and L2-gain of hybrid systems with linear flow dynamics, periodic time-triggered jumps and nonlinear possibly set-valued jump maps. This class of hybrid systems includes various interesting applications such as periodic event-triggered control. In this paper we also show that sampled-data systems with arbitrarily switching controllers can be captured in this framework by requiring the jump map to be set-valued. We provide novel conditions for the internal stability and L2-gain analysis of these systems adopting a lifting-based approach. In particular, we establish that the internal stability and contractivity in terms of an L2-gain smaller than 1 are equivalent to the internal stability and contractivity of a particular discretetime set-valued nonlinear system. Despite earlier works in this direction, these novel characterisations are the first necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability and the contractivity of this class of hybrid systems. The results are illustrated through multiple new examples.

We present a technique for bounded invariant verification of nonlinear networked dynamical systems with delayed interconnections. The underlying problem in precise boundedtime verification lies with computing bounds on the sensitivity of trajectories (or solutions) to changes in initial states and inputs of the system. For large networks, computing this sensitivity

with precision guarantees is challenging. We introduce the notion of input-to-state (IS) discrepancy of each module or subsystem in a larger nonlinear networked dynamical system. The IS discrepancy bounds the distance between two solutions or trajectories of a module in terms of their initial states and their inputs. Given the IS discrepancy functions of the modules, we show that it is possible to effectively construct a reduced (low dimensional) time-delayed dynamical system, such that the trajectory of this reduced model precisely bounds the distance between the trajectories of the complete network with changed initial states. Using the above results we develop a sound and relatively complete algorithm for bounded invariant verification of networked dynamical systems consisting of nonlinear modules interacting through possibly delayed signals. Finally, we introduce a local version of IS discrepancy and show that it is possible to compute them using only the Lipschitz constant and the Jacobian of the dynamic function of the modules.

Design and testing of pacemaker is challenging because of the need to capture the interaction between the physical processes (e.g. voltage signal in cardiac tissue) and the embedded software (e.g. a pacemaker). At the same time, there is a growing need for design and certification methodologies that can provide quality assurance for the embedded software. We describe recent progress in simulation-based techniques that are capable of ensuring guaranteed coverage. Our methods employ discrep- ancy functions, which impose bounds on system dynamics, and proceed through iteratively constructing over-approximations of the reachable set of states. We are able to prove time bounded safety or produce counterexamples. We illustrate the techniques by analyzing a family of pacemaker designs against time duration requirements and synthesize safe parameter ranges. We conclude by outlining the potential uses of this technology to improve the safety of medical device designs.

We present a controller synthesis algorithm for a discrete time reach-avoid problem in the presence of adversaries. Our model of the adversary captures typical malicious attacks en- visioned on cyber-physical systems such as sensor spoofing, controller corruption, and actuator intrusion. After formu- lating the problem in a general setting, we present a sound and complete algorithm for the case with linear dynamics and an adversary with a budget on the total L2-norm of its actions. The algorithm relies on a result from linear control theory that enables us to decompose and precisely compute the reachable states of the system in terms of a symbolic simulation of the adversary-free dynamics and the total uncertainty induced by the adversary. With this de- composition, the synthesis problem eliminates the universal quantifier on the adversary’s choices and the symbolic con- troller actions can be effectively solved using an SMT solver. The constraints induced by the adversary are computed by solving second-order cone programmings. The algorithm is later extended to synthesize state-dependent controller and to generate attacks for the adversary. We present prelimi- nary experimental results that show the effectiveness of this approach on several example problems.

A key question that arises in rigorous analysis of cyberphysical systems under attack involves establishing whether or not the attacked system deviates significantly from the ideal allowed behavior. This is the problem of deciding whether or not the ideal system is an abstraction of the attacked system. A quantitative variation of this question can capture how much the attacked system deviates from the ideal. Thus, algorithms for deciding abstraction relations can help measure the effect of attacks on cyberphysical systems and to develop attack detection strategies. In this paper, we present a decision procedure for proving that one nonlinear dynamical system is a quantitative abstraction of another. Directly computing the reach sets of these nonlinear systems are undecidable in general and reach set over-approximations do not give a direct way for proving abstraction. Our procedure uses (possibly inaccurate) numerical simulations and a model annotation to compute tight approximations of the observable behaviors of the system and then uses these approximations to decide on abstraction. We show that the procedure is sound and that it is guaranteed to terminate under reasonable robustness assumptions.